Fundamental Science and Outreach for Connected and Automated ATM
|Category:||Digitalisation, Green Transition|
|Due date:||13.10.2022 Single-stage|
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Project results are expected to contribute to the following expected outcomes.
- Environment. Project results are expected to demonstrate that the proposed solutions would have no negative impact on the environment (i.e. in terms of emissions, noise and/or local air quality) or on the potential improvement of the aviation environmental footprint.
- Capacity. Project results are expected to contribute to capacity by improving runway use and ground operations, as well as the use of medium/high density en-route airspace.
- Cost-efficiency. Project results are expected to justify the investment costs related to the adoption of automated technologies and tools.
- Safety. Project results are expected to maintain at least the same level of safety as the current ATM system, in a more connected and automated environment.
- Security. Project results are expected to identify the potential risks deriving from having a more interconnected and automated ATM system.
The SESAR 3 JU has identified the following innovative research elements that could be used to achieve the expected outcomes. The list is not intended to be prescriptive; proposals for work on areas other than those listed below are welcome, provided they include adequate background and justification to ensure clear traceability with the R&I needs set out in the SRIA for the connected and automated ATM flagship.
- Applications of innovative technologies from outside ATM. The scope is to investigate the potential usage, integration and interoperability of innovative technologies operating outside the spectrum currently used in aviation that can maintain, as overarching principles, the high level of integrity and safety required in ATM while reducing costs and optimising spectrum usage (R&I need: enabling the deployment of a performance-based CNS service offer).
- Combined and integrated KPIs and performance structure for technological solutions / cost–benefit analyses (CBAs). This element covers the creation of performance frameworks (e.g. KPAs, KPIs) to support the performance assessment of technological solutions and facilitate the development of CBAs that can help in justifying the deployment of future technologies (R&I need: enabling the deployment of a performance-based CNS service offer).
- Moving from magnetic to geographical bearings. In order to enable a performance-based CNS service offer, research on moving from magnetic to geographical bearings is required. The objective is to study what would be needed from a CNS and avionics perspective (including, for example, flight management system (FMS), surveillance) and also to investigate the operational aspects (e.g. pilots, ATCOs, procedure design) that would need to be addressed. An estimation of the potential benefits would also be required (R&I need: enabling the deployment of a performance-based CNS service offer).
- Land behind without runway vacated. The scope is to investigate the European “land behind without runway vacated” concept, similar to the FAA “land behind” clearance. Today, in the case of long runways, landing aircraft may be allowed to use the runway simultaneously under certain circumstances, or clearance to land may be given before the previous aircraft has crossed the threshold (R&I need: runway use optimisation through integrated use of arrival and departure time-based separation (TBS) tools).
- Use of slant visual range beyond runway visual range. This research is about the technical and operational use of slant visual range beyond runway visual range. In fact, runway visual range, although it has been used for decades, does not take into consideration important variables (e.g. reduced visibility caused by factors such as rain on the windshield of the aircraft) (R&I need: runway use optimisation through integrated use of arrival and departure TBS tools).
- Auto-steer aircraft taxi operations at airport. The scope is to investigate the integration of automotive into aviation technology for taxiways (‘green taxiing’), to move towards a fully automated system for all surface operations. The investigation should cover both the technology and the operational challenges (R&I need: airport automation including runway and surface movement assistance for more predictable ground operations).
- Automated ATC in medium-/high-density en-route airspace (including the evolution of the role of the human in an environment with higher levels of automation): this research into automated ATC in medium-/high-density en-route airspace investigates the move of the role of the human from executive to supervisory control, addressing the related challenges to ensure that the proposed solution is fully consistent with human capabilities. It involves developing operational concepts for higher levels of automation in ATM (e.g. delegation of control to the automated system) both at aircraft level and at ground level and addressing the specific challenges that hinder the application of ML and AI methods to the further automation of ATM (e.g. transparency, generalisation). It also addresses the recommendations provided by the Expert Group on the Human Dimension of the Single European Sky, reviewing all the roles, responsibilities and tasks of the different actors (airborne and ground, ATM and U-space, operational and technical), as well as training needs and change management in relation to evolving roles in an environment with higher levels of automation (R&I need: role of the human).
- Autonomous runway inspections and surveys. This element aims to research technical and operational aspects related to autonomous runway inspections and surveys (e.g. laser scans, cameras, drones) (R&I need: runway use optimisation through integrated use of arrival and departure TBS tools).
- AI-based separation management coherent with safety nets. The separation management function overlaps/interacts with other ATM functions (mainly trajectory management and collision avoidance). This may result in conflicting strategies and solutions from the different ATM layers, to be avoided in order to ensure smooth and safe operations. Increasing levels of automation in the separation management function may include the adoption of AI systems as providers of trajectory advisories and clearances that are compatible by design both with trajectory management (i.e. compatible with constraints such as Controlled Time of Arrival – CTA) and with downstream safety nets. In other words, the resulting advisories would always be compatible with short-term conflict alert and traffic collision avoidance system logics. The gains associated with this approach, as well as the potential problems, would need to be evaluated, especially with regard to human interaction and acceptability by all actors (R&I need: integration of safety nets (ground and airborne) into the separation management function).